Obesity is a medical condition characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, leading to negative health effects. It is usually defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. The causes of obesity are complex and involve genetic, environmental, behavioral, and metabolic factors.
Obesity increases the risk of several serious health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as dietary changes, physical activity, and behavior modification, and in some cases, medication or bariatric surgery.
Diet : Consuming high-calorie, energy-dense foods and drinks, as well as larger portions, can contribute to weight gain.
Physical inactivity : A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity can lead to an energy imbalance and weight gain.
Genetics : Obesity can run in families and may be inherited.
Medical conditions : Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, can contribute to weight gain.
Medications : Some medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
Poor sleep : Chronic sleep deprivation can affect hormones that regulate hunger and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
Stress : Chronic stress can lead to overeating, which can contribute to weight gain.
Based on body fat distribution :
Apple-shaped obesity (central obesity) : Excess fat is mostly stored around the waist and abdomen, increasing the risk of health problems such as heart disease and diabetes.
Pear-shaped obesity (peripheral obesity) : Excess fat is mostly stored in the hips and thighs, which is generally less associated with health risks.
Based on severity :
Class 1 obesity : BMI of 30-34.9
Class 2 obesity : BMI of 35-39.9
Class 3 obesity : BMI of 40 or higher (also known as severe, morbid, or super obesity).
Cardiovascular disease : Obesity increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.
Type 2 diabetes : Excess body fat can lead to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Cancer : Obesity is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer, including breast, colon, endometrial, and kidney cancer.
Metabolic syndrome : Obesity can lead to a cluster of conditions, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol levels, which increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Musculoskeletal problems : Obesity can put strain on joints and lead to conditions such as osteoarthritis.
Sleep apnea : Excess fat in the neck can cause obstructed breathing during sleep, leading to sleep apnea.
Liver disease : Obesity can lead to fatty liver disease and liver cirrhosis.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) : Excess fat in the abdomen can put pressure on the stomach, leading to GERD and heartburn.
Preventing obesity involves maintaining a healthy energy balance by balancing the number of calories consumed with the number of calories burned through physical activity. Here are some ways to prevent obesity :
Eat a healthy diet : Focus on eating whole, unprocessed foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Limit added sugars and saturated fats.
Engage in regular physical activity : Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, most days of the week.
Maintain a healthy body weight : Monitor your body weight and make changes to your diet and physical activity if necessary to prevent weight gain.
Avoid prolonged sitting : Make an effort to stand and move regularly throughout the day.
Get enough sleep : Excess fat in the neck can cause obstructed breathing during sleep, leading to sleep apnea.
Limit screen time : Reduce the amount of time spent watching TV or using electronic devices.
Manage stress : Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as through exercise, meditation, or hobbies.
Avoid sugary drinks : Limit consumption of sugary drinks, such as soda and fruit juice, and opt for water, unsweetened tea, or low-fat milk instead.
Making these changes can help prevent weight gain and reduce the risk of obesity-related health problems. It's important to make lifestyle changes gradually and to seek support from friends, family, and healthcare professionals as needed.
Other than this, you can go for the Homeopathic Treatment offered at Synopsis Clinic, by Dr. Trupti and Tushar Ratnakar.